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mod_log_config - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4









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Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4



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Apache Module mod_log_config

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Description:Logging of the requests made to the server
Status:Base
ModuleIdentifier:log_config_module
SourceFile:mod_log_config.c
Summary

    This module provides for flexible logging of client
    requests. Logs are written in a customizable format, and may be
    written directly to a file, or to an external program.
    Conditional logging is provided so that individual requests may
    be included or excluded from the logs based on characteristics
    of the request.

    Three directives are provided by this module:
    TransferLog to create
    a log file, LogFormat
    to set a custom format, and CustomLog to define a log file and format in one
    step. The TransferLog and CustomLog directives can be used multiple times in each
    server to cause each request to be logged to multiple files.

Topics

 Custom Log Formats
 Security Considerations
Directives

 BufferedLogs
 CustomLog
 GlobalLog
 LogFormat
 TransferLog

Bugfix checklisthttpd changelogKnown issuesReport a bugSee also

Apache Log Files
Comments


Custom Log Formats

    The format argument to the LogFormat and CustomLog directives is a string. This string is
    used to log each request to the log file. It can contain literal
    characters copied into the log files and the C-style control
    characters "\n" and "\t" to represent new-lines and tabs.
    Literal quotes and backslashes should be escaped with
    backslashes.

    The characteristics of the request itself are logged by
    placing "%" directives in the format string, which are
    replaced in the log file by the values as follows:

    Format String
        Description
%%
        The percent sign.
%a
        Client IP address of the request (see the
        mod_remoteip module).
%{c}a
        Underlying peer IP address of the connection (see the
        mod_remoteip module).
%A
        Local IP-address.
%B
        Size of response in bytes, excluding HTTP headers.
%b
        Size of response in bytes, excluding HTTP headers. In CLF format, i.e.
        a '-' rather than a 0 when no bytes are sent.
%{VARNAME}C
        The contents of cookie VARNAME in the request sent
        to the server. Only version 0 cookies are fully supported.
%D
        The time taken to serve the request, in microseconds.
%{VARNAME}e
        The contents of the environment variable
        VARNAME.
%f
        Filename.
%h
        Remote hostname. Will log the IP address if HostnameLookups is set to
        Off, which is the default. If it logs the hostname
        for only a few hosts, you probably have access control
        directives mentioning them by name. See the Require host
        documentation.
%H
        The request protocol.
%{VARNAME}i
        The contents of VARNAME: header line(s)
        in the request sent to the server. Changes made by other
        modules (e.g. mod_headers) affect this.  If you're
        interested in what the request header was prior to when most
        modules would have modified it, use mod_setenvif
        to copy the header into an internal environment variable and log
        that value with the %{VARNAME}e described
        above.
        
%k
        Number of keepalive requests handled on this connection.  Interesting if
          KeepAlive is being used, so that,
          for example, a '1' means the first keepalive request after the initial
          one, '2' the second, etc...;
          otherwise this is always 0 (indicating the initial request).
%l
        Remote logname (from identd, if supplied). This will return a
        dash unless mod_ident is present and IdentityCheck is set
        On.
%L
        The request log ID from the error log (or '-' if nothing has been
            logged to the error log for this request). Look for the
            matching error log line to see what request caused what error.
%m
        The request method.
%{VARNAME}n
        The contents of note VARNAME from another
        module.
%{VARNAME}o
        The contents of VARNAME: header line(s)
        in the reply.
%p
        The canonical port of the server serving the request.
%{format}p
        The canonical port of the server serving the request, or the
        server's actual port, or the client's actual port. Valid formats
        are canonical, local, or remote.
        
%P
        The process ID of the child that serviced the request.
%{format}P
        The process ID or thread ID of the child that serviced the
        request.  Valid formats are pid, tid,
        and hextid.  hextid requires APR 1.2.0 or
        higher.
        
%q
        The query string (prepended with a ? if a query
        string exists, otherwise an empty string).
%r
        First line of request.
%R
        The handler generating the response (if any).
%s
        Status. For requests that have been internally redirected, this is
        the status of the original request. Use %>s
        for the final status.
%t
        Time the request was received, in the format [18/Sep/2011:19:18:28 -0400].
        The last number indicates the timezone offset from GMT
%{format}t
        The time, in the form given by format, which should be in
        an extended strftime(3) format (potentially localized).
        If the format starts with begin: (default) the time is taken
        at the beginning of the request processing. If it starts with
        end: it is the time when the log entry gets written,
        close to the end of the request processing. In addition to the formats
        supported by strftime(3), the following format tokens are
        supported:
        
        secnumber of seconds since the Epoch
        msecnumber of milliseconds since the Epoch
        usecnumber of microseconds since the Epoch
        msec_fracmillisecond fraction
        usec_fracmicrosecond fraction
        
        These tokens can not be combined with each other or strftime(3)
        formatting in the same format string. You can use multiple
        %{format}t tokens instead.
        
%T
        The time taken to serve the request, in seconds.
%{UNIT}T
        The time taken to serve the request, in a time unit given by
        UNIT. Valid units are ms for milliseconds,
        us for microseconds, and s for seconds.
        Using s gives the same result as %T
        without any format; using us gives the same result
        as %D. Combining %T with a unit is
        available in 2.4.13 and later.
%u
        Remote user if the request was authenticated. May be bogus if return status
        (%s) is 401 (unauthorized).
%U
        The URL path requested, not including any query string.
%v
        The canonical ServerName
        of the server serving the request.
%V
        The server name according to the UseCanonicalName setting.
%X
        Connection status when response is completed:

        
        
        X =
            Connection aborted before the response completed.
        + =
            Connection may be kept alive after the response is
            sent.
        - = 
            Connection will be closed after the response is
            sent.
        

        
%I
        Bytes received, including request and headers. Cannot be zero.
        You need to enable mod_logio to use this.
%O
        Bytes sent, including headers. May be zero in rare cases
        such as when a request is aborted before a response is sent.
        You need to enable mod_logio to use this.
%S
        Bytes transferred (received and sent), including request and headers,
        cannot be zero. This is the combination of %I and %O. You need to
        enable mod_logio to use this.
%{VARNAME}^ti
        The contents of VARNAME: trailer line(s)
        in the request sent to the server.  
%{VARNAME}^to
        The contents of VARNAME: trailer line(s)
        in the response sent from the server.  


    Modifiers

      Particular items can be restricted to print only for
      responses with specific HTTP status codes by placing a
      comma-separated list of status codes immediately following the
      "%". The status code list may be preceded by a "!" to
      indicate negation.

    Format String
    Meaning

    %400,501{User-agent}i
    Logs User-agent on 400 errors and 501 errors only. For
      other status codes, the literal string "-" will be
      logged.
%!200,304,302{Referer}i
    Logs Referer on all requests that do
    not return one of the three specified codes,
    "-" otherwise.
    


      The modifiers "<" and ">" can be used for requests that
      have been internally redirected to choose whether the original
      or final (respectively) request should be consulted.  By
      default, the % directives %s, %U, %T,
      %D, and %r look at the original request
      while all others look at the final request.  So for example,
      %>s can be used to record the final status of
      the request and %<u can be used to record the
      original authenticated user on a request that is internally
      redirected to an unauthenticated resource.

    

    Format Notes

      For security reasons, starting with version 2.0.46,
      non-printable and other special characters in %r,
      %i and %o are escaped using
      \xhh sequences, where hh
      stands for the hexadecimal representation of the raw
      byte. Exceptions from this rule are " and
      \, which are escaped by prepending a backslash, and
      all whitespace characters, which are written in their C-style
      notation (\n, \t, etc).  In versions
      prior to 2.0.46, no escaping was performed on these strings so
      you had to be quite careful when dealing with raw log files.

      Since httpd 2.0, unlike 1.3, the %b and
      %B format strings do not represent the number of
      bytes sent to the client, but simply the size in bytes of the
      HTTP response (which will differ, for instance, if the
      connection is aborted, or if SSL is used).  The %O
      format provided by mod_logio will log the
      actual number of bytes sent over the network.

      
      Note: mod_cache is implemented as a
      quick-handler and not as a standard handler. Therefore, the
      %R format string will not return any handler
      information when content caching is involved.
      

    

    Examples

      Some commonly used log format strings are:

      
        Common Log Format (CLF)
        "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b"

        Common Log Format with Virtual Host
        "%v %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b"

        NCSA extended/combined log format
        "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\"
        \"%{User-agent}i\""

        Referer log format
        "%{Referer}i -> %U"

        Agent (Browser) log format
        "%{User-agent}i"
      

      You can use the %{format}t directive multiple
      times to build up a time format using the extended format tokens
      like msec_frac:
      
Timestamp including milliseconds
"%{%d/%b/%Y %T}t.%{msec_frac}t %{%z}t"

      

    


Security Considerations
    See the security tips
    document for details on why your security could be compromised
    if the directory where logfiles are stored is writable by
    anyone other than the user that starts the server.


BufferedLogs Directive

Description:Buffer log entries in memory before writing to disk
Syntax:BufferedLogs On|Off
Default:BufferedLogs Off
Context:server config
Status:Base
Module:mod_log_config

    The BufferedLogs directive causes
    mod_log_config to store several log entries in
    memory and write them together to disk, rather than writing them
    after each request.  On some systems, this may result in more
    efficient disk access and hence higher performance.  It may be
    set only once for the entire server; it cannot be configured
    per virtual-host.

    This directive should be used with caution as a crash might
    cause loss of logging data.



CustomLog Directive

Description:Sets filename and format of log file
Syntax:CustomLog  file|pipe
format|nickname
[env=[!]environment-variable|
expr=expression]
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Base
Module:mod_log_config

    The CustomLog directive is used to
    log requests to the server. A log format is specified, and the
    logging can optionally be made conditional on request
    characteristics using environment variables.

    The first argument, which specifies the location to which
    the logs will be written, can take one of the following two
    types of values:

    
      file
      A filename, relative to the ServerRoot.

      pipe
      The pipe character "|", followed by the path
      to a program to receive the log information on its standard
      input. See the notes on piped logs
      for more information.

      Security:
      If a program is used, then it will be run as the user who
      started httpd. This will be root if the server was
      started by root; be sure that the program is secure.
      
      Note
        When entering a file path on non-Unix platforms, care should be taken
        to make sure that only forward slashed are used even though the platform
        may allow the use of back slashes. In general it is a good idea to always
        use forward slashes throughout the configuration files.
      
    

    The second argument specifies what will be written to the
    log file. It can specify either a nickname defined by
    a previous LogFormat
    directive, or it can be an explicit format string as
    described in the log formats section.

    For example, the following two sets of directives have
    exactly the same effect:

    # CustomLog with format nickname
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
CustomLog "logs/access_log" common

# CustomLog with explicit format string
CustomLog "logs/access_log" "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b"


    The third argument is optional and controls whether or
    not to log a particular request. The condition can be the
    presence or absence (in the case of a 'env=!name'
    clause) of a particular variable in the server
    environment. Alternatively, the condition
    can be expressed as arbitrary boolean expression. If the condition is not satisfied, the request
    will not be logged. References to HTTP headers  in the expression
    will not cause the header names to be added to the Vary header.

    Environment variables can be set on a per-request
    basis using the mod_setenvif
    and/or mod_rewrite modules. For
    example, if you want to record requests for all GIF
    images on your server in a separate logfile but not in your main
    log, you can use:

    SetEnvIf Request_URI \.gif$ gif-image
CustomLog "gif-requests.log" common env=gif-image
CustomLog "nongif-requests.log" common env=!gif-image


    Or, to reproduce the behavior of the old RefererIgnore
    directive, you might use the following:

    SetEnvIf Referer example\.com localreferer
CustomLog "referer.log" referer env=!localreferer




GlobalLog Directive

Description:Sets filename and format of log file
Syntax:GlobalLogfile|pipe
format|nickname
[env=[!]environment-variable|
expr=expression]
Context:server config
Status:Base
Module:mod_log_config
Compatibility:Available in Apache HTTP Server 2.4.19 and later


    The GlobalLog directive defines a log shared
       by the main server configuration and all defined virtual hosts.

    The GlobalLog directive is identical to
    the CustomLog directive, apart from the following
    differences:
    
       GlobalLog is not valid in virtual host
            context.
       GlobalLog is used by virtual hosts that
           define their own CustomLog, unlike a 
           globally specified CustomLog.
    



LogFormat Directive

Description:Describes a format for use in a log file
Syntax:LogFormat format|nickname
[nickname]
Default:LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b"
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Base
Module:mod_log_config

    This directive specifies the format of the access log
    file.

    The LogFormat directive can take one of two
    forms. In the first form, where only one argument is specified,
    this directive sets the log format which will be used by logs
    specified in subsequent TransferLog
    directives. The single argument can specify an explicit
    format as discussed in the custom log
    formats section above. Alternatively, it can use a
    nickname to refer to a log format defined in a
    previous LogFormat directive as described
    below.

    The second form of the LogFormat
    directive associates an explicit format with a
    nickname. This nickname can then be used in
    subsequent LogFormat or
    CustomLog directives
    rather than repeating the entire format string. A
    LogFormat directive that defines a nickname
    does nothing else -- that is, it only
    defines the nickname, it doesn't actually apply the format and make
    it the default. Therefore, it will not affect subsequent
    TransferLog directives.
    In addition, LogFormat cannot use one nickname
    to define another nickname. Note that the nickname should not contain
    percent signs (%).

    ExampleLogFormat "%v %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" vhost_common

    



TransferLog Directive

Description:Specify location of a log file
Syntax:TransferLog file|pipe
Context:server config, virtual host
Status:Base
Module:mod_log_config

    This directive has exactly the same arguments and effect as
    the CustomLog
    directive, with the exception that it does not allow the log format
    to be specified explicitly or for conditional logging of requests.
    Instead, the log format is determined by the most recently specified
    LogFormat directive
    which does not define a nickname. Common Log Format is used if no
    other format has been specified.

    ExampleLogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-agent}i\""
TransferLog logs/access_log





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